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Dr Scott Hollier - Digital Access Specialist Posts

It’s time to legislate against digital access discrimination in Australia

A few days ago I was alerted by a colleague as to a news item on Pro bono News titled ‘Disability Groups Call For Accessible ICT in Public Service Workplaces’.  In the news item it talks about the woefully low 3.6% employment rate of people with a disability in the Federal public service, and how much of this can be attributed to inaccessible ICT procurement policies. The argument is that if there is inaccessible equipment, including computers and websites, then it is difficult for people with a disability to stay employed in a government role.

However, what the article glosses over is that the Federal government in fact has some very good policy relating to ICT procurement for people with disability. The larger issue is why then does it not work in practice, and what can be done about it?  I thought it’d be a good time to briefly reflect on how web accessibility has been handled in government circles to date, and the desperate need to update our ancient disability discrimination laws to fix it.


The first internationally adopted standard in relation to the creation of accessible web content is generally considered to be the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 1.0, released by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) in 1999.  While many countries including the USA and New Zealand legislated this standard, Australia was essentially missing in action with ad-hoc policy across the Federal government and various state governments. While there were some exceptions to this such as Victoria who took the WCAG 1.0 standard a little more seriously than others, broadly speaking Australia did not actively embrace the provision of accessible content in government.

Maguire V SOCOG

It is then perhaps with some irony that in 2000 the eyes of the world turned to Australia to see what would happen when the strength of WCAG 1.0 was put to a legal test. In the Maguire V Sydney Organising Committee for the Olympic Games (SOCOG) case, a blind man took SOCOG to the then-named Australian Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (HREOC) due to the Sydney 2000 Olympics website being inaccessible making it impossible to purchase tickets and keep up with the Games activities for assistive technology users. Maguire discusses his experience in a video created by the now-more-simpler-named Australian Human Rights Commission (AHRC):

As noted into the video, Maguire ultimately won the case but at a massive personal cost. The reason it is such a difficult process relates to the legal framework designed to protect people with a disability against discrimination, the Disability Discrimination Act of 1992 (DDA).

The legal process

The biggest issue in fighting the lack of technology support as a person with a disability is how the DDA handles technology – or rather the lack of it. Currently there is no reference to anything related to Information and Communications Technology (ICT, computers, the Internet or anything that could specifically address a person with a disability that cannot access online information in the DDA. There is, however, an advisory note published in 2014 by the AHRC which explains that Section 24 can apply. It is explained as follows:

The provision of information and online services through the web is a service covered by the DDA. Equal access for people with a disability in this area is required by the DDA where it can reasonably be provided. This requirement applies to any individual or organisation developing a website or other web resource in Australia or placing or maintaining a web resource on an Australian server. This includes web pages and other resources developed or maintained for purposes related to employment; education; provision of services including professional services, banking, insurance or financial services, entertainment or recreation, telecommunications services, public transport services, or government services; sale or rental of real estate; sport; activities of voluntary associations; or administration of Commonwealth laws and programs. All these are areas specifically covered by the DDA.

In addition to these specific areas, provision of any other information or other goods, services or facilities through the internet is a service, and as such, discrimination in the provision of this service is covered by the DDA. The DDA applies to services whether provided for payment or not.”

Unfortunately, while the note suggests certainty, it also highlights the long bow that must be drawn in recognising access to the Internet as a service. Furthermore, it does not recognise the most critical part of the argument and that is that barriers to online information are not just about denial of service, but denial of an essential service. As the DDA does not specifically mention this and the legislation pre-dates the arrival of the World Wide Web for most people, it is unable to enforce online access. Therefore, the DDA is broken. As such, policy – even good policy – cannot rectify it.

Good policy is no substitute for legislation

The frustration with the lack of ICT support in the DDA is that there has been a lot of good policy created that should be helpful in addressing inequity. The problem is that it has no teeth. While Australia was slow in adopting WCAG 1.0, it did a much better job in adopting WCAG 2.0 which remains the current Australian requirement. Shortly after the arrival of WCAG 2.0 in 2008, the Federal government created the National Transition Strategy (NTS) which set specific deadlines for Federal government websites to make their content accessible. The plan was for all websites to conform to the Level A target of WCAG 2.0 by the end of 2012 and Level AA by the end of 2014. The states and local governments also got on board, and it seemed that web accessibility was soon going to be a thing of the past.

However, an interim report card after the first deadline indicated that only 26% of websites self-reported to be WCAG 2.0 Level A compliant. While the government saw this as largely good news as it had got the accessibity of government websites from near-0% to 26%, the disability community was less than impressed and the final report was never released to the public.

Policies today

So, coming back to the present, what policies are in place to ensure that people with a disability can gain effective access to online content and get jobs that require online access? Well there have been some positives. The two most notable in government circles is the Digital Service Standard (DSS) in which point 9 specifically refers to accessibility. As such, there is certainly good policy to say that the Federal government should be making its content accessible. In relation to procurement, there has also been progress. As of last year, there is a specific disability ICT procurement standard based on an almost direct text adoption of the European Standard (EN 301 549). The Federal government was so excited about the work, it committed to its adoption before the standard was even finished!  When these efforts are combined with the overall AHRC ruling on the relevance of the DDA, it should be the case that Australia is a beacon of digital access. Unfortunately, in practical terms, these policies have little impact.

The DDA doesn’t work – let’s fix it

The upshot is that the policies we have do not work despite a lot of passionate and dedicated people in government trying to fix it. It is clear that unless there is specific legislation to handle ICT discrimination for people with a disability, it will continue to be the case that policies can be ignored without any consequences, putting the pressure on individuals with disabilities to lodge a claim.

As such, I join the disability groups mentioned in the news item at the start of this article in a call for change. However, in my view there’s no point in creating more internal government policy as it clearly doesn’t work. It seems ridiculous that 18 years after the Maguire case, the processes for addressing online access issues largely remain the same.  The time has come to fix the law itself – to update the DDA so that digital access is acknowledged as an essential human right, and by doing so a clear case can be made that failure to abide by the provision of digital access has enforceable consequences.

Dr Scott Hollier to give public ‘seeing without light’ lecture at UWA

It’s a great privlege to let you know that on Wednesday 18 April I’ll be giving a free public lecture at the University of Western Australia titled ‘The Seeing without Light: how people with disability are embracing emerging technologies’.

My presentation will discuss how the rapid evolution of computers and mobile devices has had a significant impact on how we engage online and with each other. Yet for people with disabilities, including visual impairment, such technologies represent far more than just the sum of their parts – it is ultimately a gateway for independence. With emerging technologies such as virtual reality, augmented reality and the Internet of Things, how can we ensure that people with disability continue to be a part of our digital culture? I’ll demonstrate how people with disability are currently able to engage with consumer devices along with the benefits and issues associated with our new and emerging consumer digital needs.

This talk is part of the 2018 Light Talks series, “Living with and without light.” The aim is to raise awareness about the experience of vision impaired people in a globalized and technological world. This series is presented by UWA Optical Society (OSA) student chapter and the UWA Institute of Advanced Studies.

If you live in the Perth area and would like to come along, the details are as follows:

When: Wednesday 18 April 2018

Time: 6pm-7pm

Where: Austin Lecture Theatre, UWA Arts Building

Cost: Free

RSVP: online via

Thanks very much to the organisers for the opportunity and looking forward to hopefully seeing some of you there.

Eye-D Android app now also available on iPhone

The popular Eye-D Android app, a ‘swiss-army knife’ style collection of tools designed to assist people who are blind or vision impaired, is now available for iOS devices such as the Apple iPhone.

Eye-D app menu screen

Screenshot of Eye-D app menu screen

The Eye-D app contains a number of useful accessibility features with a particular focus on supporting people who are blind or have low vision. Features include the ‘Where am I?’ function which uses GPS to provide users with the closest street addresss, the ability to identify an object in an image and the ability to take a photo of text which is then read out. The app also has an ‘around me’ function which allows the user to find key features in their surroundings such as food places, bus stops, banks, and cinemas, then provides the option to send the information to Google Maps so the user can navigate to that location.

While the app has been available on Android devices for several years, the app has only just launched for the Apple iPhone. The standard Eye-D app is free and a Pro version is available for purchase. A second collection of features available for purchase includes an advanced OCR scanner for different languages and a colour identifier.

The arrival of this app and the similar Seeing AI app by Microsoft on the iPhone marks a recent trend towards bundling multiple features into one app.  Further information on the Eye-D app can be found in the Apple App Store and Google Play Store respectively.

ACT TF & YouDescribe – two highlights from CSUN 2018

It is with a bittersweet feeling that I write this article about CSUN 2018. Originally I was planning to be there to present on my Internet of Things research provided to W3C. Sadly though it wasn’t meant to be with a medical issue flaring up leading me to cancel my travel just after check-in. It’s a strange feeling to ask the airline to retrieve your luggage after it has already gone through! 

While I didn’t make it to the conference myself, there were lots of amazing presentations, and after touching base with several people who did present I wanted to pull together two things which really stood out for me coming out of the conference.  

Accessibility Conformance Test (ACT) Task Force leadership

Shadi Abou-Zahra from W3C gave a great presentation about the work of the Accessibility Conformance Test (ACT) Task Force which is focusing on providing support to Test tool developers, test professionals, industry, manufacturers of technology, and procurers of accessible technology among others in the testing of accessibility. The goals of the ACT TF are to:

  • Reduce differing interpretations of WCAG
  • Make test procedures interchangeable
  • Develop a library of commonly accepted rules for WCAG
  • Establish a community of contributors

While WCAG-EM 1.0 is already in place to help people create an accessibility auditing process, the guidance is quite broad. The upcoming standards work of WCAG 2.1 and Silver highlight the need to bring a uniform and consistent mechanism of procedures to auditing testing processes.

I’ve personally seen the auditing processes of four companies and while they all provide effective guidance, they’re also all significantly different – including my own approach. The work of the ACT TF will be an exciting development going forward and really help bringing people who work in the industry together with a consistent interpretation of the relevant standards.


A second presentation I was sad to miss out on but have managed to catch up with is about YouDescribe, a way to create audio described videos on YouTube for free. The website explains how it works like this:

“Sighted people view YouTube videos and record descriptions of what they see. When the video is played with YouDescribe, the descriptions are played back with the video. Underneath the hood, YouDescribe uses an exclusive API to store description clips and information about them. YouDescribe knows what video each clip belongs to and what time the clip should be played. Lots of other information is stored along with the descriptions, including who recorded it, when it was recorded, how popular it is, etc. YouDescribe is the first video service to allow anybody, anywhere, to record and upload video descriptions to the cloud. It provides a unique way for people to get descriptions for the instructional, informational, and entertainment videos offered on YouTube.”


Due to audio described video being of benefit to people who are blind or vision impaired, and its notable lack of implementation here in Australia, YouDescribe potentially makes the creation of audio described content much easier to do and easier to find. While YouDescribe is not a brand-new service, I’ve found it hard to track down concrete information until the CSUN presentation which is one of the things that makes such conferences great.

Internet of Things report now available  

Also, while talking about CSUN 2018, I’d like to take this opportunity to sincerely apologise to anyone that was trying to find me or turned up to my presentation slot due to the late cancellation. If you would like to read the full report of my Internet of Things research that was prepared for W3C, you can find a link to it in the Publications list of the W3C Web of Things wiki.

Google Lens receives Assistant support and wider release

Last year, Google announced the launch of its new Lens feature, designed to not only provide information about an image, but connect it to real-world information. The exciting news is that the feature, initially limited to Google’s own Pixel smartphones, is now being rolled out to most Android users in an update to the Photos app. iPhone users will also receive Lens at a later date.

At the time I mentioned that for people who are blinder vision impaired, the Lens feature has the potential to provide significant benefits. While there are several effective apps available on mobile devices that can deliver image recognition and OCR capabilities, Lens has the additional benefit of connecting the image with meaningful data that is likely to be useful while the user is in that specific location. For example, a blind user could take a photo of a café and not only have the café itself identified, but a menu could be provided at the same time along with the accessibility of the building.

In addition, the feature is being added to the Google Assistant. According to an article by Android Police, “Lens in Google Photos will soon be available to all English-language users on both Android and iOS. You’ll be able to scan your photos for landmarks and objects, no matter what platform you use. In addition, Lens in Assistant will start rolling out to “compatible flagship devices” over the coming weeks. The company says it will add support for more devices as time goes on.”

With the Google Assistant also receiving the ability to use Lens, it will make the feature much easier for people with vision-related disabilities to simply speak to theirphone to identify their surroundings. Additional information on the feature can be found at Google’s Lens information page.