Skip to content

Dr Scott Hollier - Digital Access Specialist Posts

Featured Post

Welcome to hollier.info – Home of Dr Scott Hollier

WCAG 2.1 is here – is your organisation ready?

Dr Scott HollierW3C has launched its new Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.1 standard – the first major update in a decade. This makes it a great time to upskill your staff, assess your organisation’s digital access credentials and maximise your support for people with disabilities.

Whether your needs are local to Australia or international, Scott can provide you with a range of consultancy services, auditing assessments and research endeavours to make websites, apps and documents accessible. Scott can also be booked for speaking engagements based on a variety of topics relating to disability, education, current and future technologies and his life story discussed in his book ‘Outrunning the Night: a life journey of disability, determination and joy’.

Scott’s credentials include a PhD in the field and two decades working across the corporate, government and not-for-profit sectors. Scott is also an active contributor to W3C research and has a personal understanding of digital access as a legally blind person. You can learn more about digital accessibility in the news items below.

Thank you for visiting!

ATO staff upskill in preparation for WCAG 2.1

Last week it was a great privilege to provide a webinar to staff from the Australian Taxation Office (ATO), supporting their upskilling processes around the new WCAG 2.1 standard.

The webinar included 11 staff across four states with a focus to support ICT professionals, internal accessibility specialists and content producers as to how the mobile-focused WCAG 2.1 could be integrated into their work processes.

The half-day webinar focused on why digital access for people with disability is important, how to interpret the legacy WCAG 2.0 success criteria in a mobile context, an overview of the new WCAG 2.1 success criteria to Level AA and the implications of future standards developments. The webinar also included two practical activities including providing participants with an opportunity to use a screen reader and how to test websites with an automated tool.

While many ATO staff were already actively working to make digital content accessible, the guidance provided in the webinar helped to highlight a more mobile-specific focus in preparation for the WCAG 2.1 rollout mentioned in a recent tweet by the Digital Transformation Agency (DTA).

Thanks again to the staff at the ATO for the opportunity to provide the webinar – it’s wonderful to see so many people dedicated to the pursuit of digital access. If any other government department is interested in being upskilled in WCAG 2.1, please get in touch.

Australian Digital Transformation Agency commits to WCAG 2.1 AA update

The Digital Transformation Agency (DTA), a Federal government department that oversees the national Digital Service Standard (DSS), issued a tweet recently confirming it will be moving to WCAG 2.1.

In its tweet, the DTA stated that:

“’There will be 17 new criteria in #WCAG 2.1 to cover new digital tools and understanding mobile, low vision and cognitive. @DTA will update our guides to meet WCAG 2.1 criteria.’ #contentstrategy #accessibility #dtachats

While the tweet is good news, indicating that the Australian Federal government will be moving to WCAG 2.1, there was initially some confusion with the announcement. Given there are only 12 Success Criteria in WCAG 2.1 Level AA, the tweet inferred that the Federal government would be moving to Level AAA to implement all 17 Success Criteria. If true, this would have been a major departure from existing government policy.

To clarify this issue, I sent a reply to the DTA’s tweet, checking if they were indeed planning to implement all 17 Success Criteria. In response, the DTA stated:

“Hi @scotthollier, we apologise for the delay in responding. There
are no plans to move to AAA, but as we explore the updates to WCAG 2.1 we’re
issuing new best practice advice to help agencies understand the changes.”

This suggests that the new Federal government requirement described by the Digital Service Standard is likely to be based on a WCAG 2.1 Level AA conformance, incorporating the 12 largely mobile-focused new Success Criteria.

If you wish to upskill your staff in preparation for the new DTA requirement, you can find additional information in the Consultancy and Training section of this webiste. There is also a free WCAG 2.1 resource at the Centre For Accessibility website.

Microsoft Office Accessibility Checker – here’s how to use it

If you are subscribed to Microsoft Office 365, you may have noticed an alert appearing recently when launching an Office application such as Word or PowerPoint. The message is about a new update to the built-in document accessibility checker. In Microsoft’s What’s New In Office 365 page, the update is described as follows:

“One-click fixes for accessibility issues: The Accessibility Checker is better than ever with updated support for international standards and handy recommendations to make your documents more accessible.”

Screenshot of Microsoft Word Accessibility Checker update message

Given that many people aren’t aware that Microsoft have had an accessibility checker tucked away in Office for some time now, let alone how to use it, I thought it’d be a good time to pull together the common questions I’m asked about it.

What is the Accessibility Checker?

The Microsoft Accessibility Checker is a feature included in Microsoft Office that allows users to check the accessibility of their documents. When the check is used, it provides a list of potential accessibility issues with suggestions on how to address them. The user is then able to fix the issues to make the document more accessible to people with disabilities.

Which versions of Microsoft Office have the Checker?

The accessibility checker was first introduced in Office 2010.However the feature was difficult to find in earlier versions so many people did not know it was there. This has been improved with Office 365. The feature is currently available in the Windows and Mac versions of Office.

Which Office applications have the checker?

The checker is currently available in Word, Excel, PowerPoint and more recently Outlook. This means you can check documents, spreadsheets, slides and e-mail for accessibility issues and follow the recommendations to fix them.

Does the accessibility checker conform with WCAG?

Given that Office is an authoring tool rather than a website, a more applicable standard would be its compliance to the Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG) 2.0. ATAG essentially looks at whether a tool can be used by a person with a disability, and whether that tool can produce accessible content based on WCAG. In both cases, the answer for Office on Windows is broadly yes, but people with disabilities have reported issues using Office on Mac, iOS and Android due to incompatibilities with assistive technologies. The Checker itself though is available on Office for Windows and Office for Mac. As such, Office for Mac still remains broadly compatible with the second part of ATAG 2.0.

While ATAG is the more applicable standard when discussing authoring tools, WCAG still plays an important role. As such, the accessibility requirements for document formats such as Word and PowerPoint will sound very familiar to people when compared with WCAG: images need alternative text, videos need captions, tables need headings and documents need to be structured correctly using styles – just to name a few. The accessibility checker is useful in that it can check a document for issues that are in common with WCAG along with additional advice related to Microsoft-specific features.

How can I use the accessibility checker?

If you are using the latest version of Microsoft Office, the Checker is now quite easy to find and easy to use. The instructions provided by Microsoft are as follows:

  1. On the ribbon, click the Review tab.
  2. Click Check Accessibility.
  3. Review your results. You’ll see a list of errors, warnings, and tips with how-to-fix recommendations for each.

If you are using an older version of Office such as 2010 or 2013, here’s how you can find and use the Checker in Word, Excel or PowerPoint:

  1. Click File > Info.
  2. Select the Check for Issues button. Tip: To the right of the Check for Issues button, under the Inspect heading, is a list of any potential issues.
  3. In the Check for Issues drop-down menu, select Check Accessibility.
  4. The Accessibility Checker task pane appears next to your content and shows the inspection results.
  5. To see information on why and how to fix an issue, under Inspection Results, select an issue. Results appear under Additional Information, and you’re directed to the inaccessible content in your file.

Is the latest Checker update important?

The recent update to the accessibility checker makes the interface much easier to cross-check and fix accessibility issues with your Word, Excel, PowerPoint or outlook document. However, the more important benefit to using the latest Office 365 version is that it is now able to provide guidance on more issues. If you are regularly providing documents to people with disabilities, it is strongly recommended that you update to Office 2016 or Office 365 with the latest updates to maximise the effectiveness of the Accessibility Checker.

Additional information on the accessibility features of Microsoft products can be found on the Microsoft Accessibility website.

W3C WAI CAPTCHA Note update open for public comment

It’s with much excitement that I can share with you some W3C work I have been involved in relating to the update of W3C WAI advice on the inaccessibility of CAPTCHA. The Note has now reached  the public review stage and feedback is welcome.

In an e-mail to the WAI Interest Group (WAI-IG), fellow editors Janina Sajka, Accessible Platform Architectures WG Chair and Michael Cooper, Accessibility Guidelines WG W3C Staff Contact, announced that:

“The Accessible Platform Architectures Working Group has published aWorking Draft of a revision to Inaccessibility of CAPTCHA at:https://www.w3.org/TR/turingtest/ Inaccessibility of CAPTCHA has been a Working Group Note since 2005. It describes problems with common approaches to distinguish human users of web sites from robots, and examines a number of potential solutions. Since the last publication, the abilities of robots to defeat CAPTCHAs has increased, and new technologies to authenticate human users have come available. This update brings the document up to date with thesenew realities. It is published as Working Draft to gather public review,after which it is expected to be republished as a Working Group Note.”

As an invited expert for the W3C WAI APA Research Questions Task Force (RQTF), it’s been a privilege to work with Janina and Michael on updating the note alongside the hard work of all the RQTF members.  This is the first time I’ve been involved in the W3C editorial process and the experience has been very rewarding.

With the first draft complete, the Note is open for public comment so that additional improvements to the advice can be included. Additional information about this publication can be found in the CAPTCHA Note blog post.

Accessible gaming: the calls for improvement grow louder every Fortnite

As a child of the 1980s, I find the evolution of video games a fascinating topic. With early creations such as Pong recently celebrating its 45th anniversary and games such as Pac-Man continuing to be an immediately recognisable character in popular culture 35 years after its launch, it’s clear that the popularity of video games has endured over time. It therefore comes as no surprise that once again one game in particular is currently sweeping the world and this time around it’s Fortnite Battle Royale by EpicGames. As such, I thought it was timely to have a look at the current state of game accessibility and identify why accessible gaming is so important yet remains so elusive.

Big games mean big business

Before looking specifically at accessibility, it’s important to acknowledge the sheer size and scope of the video game industry. Fortnite Battle Royale is a particularly good example of how a popular global release can lead to significant revenue for game companies. While the game is free, add-on features such as dance moves and skins have seen the game generate $USD300 million just in the month of April 2018. Incredibly, it seems that there is no end in sight to the industry continuing to generate large amounts of money; the last time a downturn occurred was the video game crash of 1983, meaning there has been about 35 years of sustained growth for the industry. To put this into context, the estimated global revenue of video games in 2016 was approximately $USD100 billion which includes approximately $AUD2.8 billion ($USD2.1 billion) being attributed to Australian sales alone.

While the growth of the video games industry remains the envy of many, it is its projected growth that continues to amaze. This is due in part to the large number of devices that we use and our desire to play video games on all of them. From the more traditional video game console connected to our television through to our computer workstation, mobile phone and the emerging wearable market, it’s become clear that if we have an electronic device, we strive to figure out a way to put a game on it. As the popularity of virtual reality and augmented reality continues to filter into the mainstream, it too is becoming a gaming platform that continues to grow in popularity. Even the relatively new category of digital assistant smartspeakers in the home such as the Amazon Echo now have audio-based games available on demand.

Yet it is perhaps with some irony that for people with disabilities, the classic video games I enjoyed as a child with a vision impairment -with their high contrast colour scheme, primitive sound effects, large blocky pixel graphics and predictable gameplay strategies – may have unintentionally represented a time of gameplay accessibility that has seemingly declined since the classic video game era. While there are notable exceptions where developers have worked hard to include accessibility, it is generally deemed to be an exception rather than the rule.   

Fortnite and Minecraft: easy to play, hard to find accessibility information

With that in mind, let’s consider what accessibility features are included in the current worldwide smash Fortnite Battle Royale, and one of the games that previously held the title of world gaming dominance, Minecraft. For this I’ve enlisted my 10-year-old son who is a master of both along with a bit of online research.

One of the first things I discovered is how difficult it is to find a simple overview of the accessibility features in these games despite their popularity. While the information is out there, it is surprisingly challenging to locate a concise summary, especially when trying to get a comparison across different platforms. This is arguably an issue in itself. However, with perseverance comes reward, and in Fortnite Battle Royale my son and I were able to track down its accessibility features which included colour correction options, some control mapping and captions for the introductory video.

Fortnite Battle Royale accessibility screen

Minecraft was a bit easier in terms of finding information possibly due to the game having been around much longer. There also appear to be ongoing updates to its accessibility such as a recent text-to-speech option being added for in-game chat.

Minecraft accessibility screenHowever, reviews on Minecraft’s accessibility are mixed: While the game caters effectively for people with a hearing impairment and mobility impairment, there are limited accessibility features for other disability groups.  

There are good news stories though – enter Microsoft

Although the implementation of accessibility features in popular games is ad-hoc at best, there are many examples of big gaming companies trying to improve this space. In addition to a number of accessible gaming titles, the spotlight on best practice turned to Microsoft recently with its announcement of its Xbox Adaptive Controller (XAC).  Developed by Microsoft in collaboration with AbleGamers, Warfighter Engaged, SpecialEffect, Craig Hospital and the Cerebral Palsy Foundation, the controller was designed to include two oversized programmable buttons, 19 3.5mm input jacks and two USB ports, allowing disabled gamers to easily connect special joysticks, switches, and any other tools they may need.

While the initiative of the XAC is a great one, an accessible controller is only as good as what the software allows it to do and in this regard there’s still no guarantee that the Xbox or PC games released will be compatible with it or provide any accessibility features at all.

The need for standards

To ensure that games are accessible, there are essentially two critical things that need to occur: firstly, people with disabilities need to have accessibility features provided in the gaming platform. Secondly, games need to be designed in a way that supports such features. To provide dependable guidance on this, it is necessary for game developers to have an internationally recognised standard.

However, despite the popularity of gaming across a range of electronic devices, there has not been the same desire to develop internationally-recognised standards in this space as there has been for web content more broadly. With the third iteration of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) celebrating its recent 2.1 release, the lack of gaming support is becoming more notable by comparison.  

As such, the not-for-profit organisation AbleGamers has created a resource titled Includification which highlights how developers can ensure that their games meet basic accessibility requirements with broad categories of mobility, hearing, vision and cognitive guidance.

Structured in a similar way to WCAG with three implementation levels, the mobility-related guidance focuses on the need for alternative configurations, camera controls, and remappable keys. Additional requirements focus on the provision of customisable user interface elements, save points, adjustments to input settings and speed settings.

In regards to hearing, the core focus is on the provision of closed captions and the ability to adjust the font and size of such captions, along with the removal of ambient game noise. For vision the focus is primarily on the ability to adjust the colour font, with a specific reference to the inclusion of a high contrast marker for in-game enemy tracking. There is also consideration for the provision of text-to-speech output such as compatibility with screen readers.

In regards to addressing cognitive issues, AbleGamers recommends that game tutorials are clearly provided, speed adjustment settings are provided, training modes are available and there should be a clear indication of in-game enemies.  

In addition to the AbleGamers Includification, a second separate initiative by industry professionals has created guidelines simply known as the Game Accessibility Guidelines living document. Featuring a similar structure to the Includification guidelines there are three implementation levels with a focus on general, motor, cognitive, vision, hearing and speech requirements. While many of the points are similar to the Includification guidelines, there are some important additional recommendations such as the need to label packaging and online materials at point of sale with information on the game’s accessibility features.

We have the guidance but not the solution

Given there’s two comprehensive documents that explain how to make games accessible, let’s look again at how Fortnite Battle Royale and Minecraft stack up. Both games do contain some accessibility features so at least we can see that thought has been given to the issue. Yet in both cases the games fall way short of the recommendations and there’s no easy way to determine in-store if a game is accessible or not. The problem is that despite the best intentions of Able Gamers and the merit of their guidance on accessible gaming, the Includification guidelines are not a standard, and as a result there is no specific legislative or policy framework that requires their implementation. Until an official international standard is released, it will continue to be up to the industry to decide how accessibility is implemented, and to what degree that process occurs.

Let’s make the next gaming hit an accessible one

To achieve a genuine and ongoing solution, I’d like to join in the chorus of calls to gaming companies and standards bodies to engage with organisations such as AbleGamers to find ways to make their guidelines an enforceable standard. The XAC has demonstrated that such a collaboration is possible and what it can yield so there’s no reason this can’t take place.

As a legally blind person it would be awesome if I could team up with my son in Fortnite Battel Royale but due to my vision our ability to play games together remains firmly locked in the 8-bit era. It’s a shame as it wouldn’t take much customisation to make the modern gaming experience accessible to me. The time has come for accessibility in gaming to be as comprehensive and predictable as the likelihood of a new game sweeping the world. Hopefully on that occasion I and everyone else that would like to play can join in too.